Palestine

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Early background

The area of ancient historic and Biblical Israel, In 132-135 CE, the Romans had crushed the Bar Kochba revolt they renamed Israel Syria Palestina to deny Jewish identity with the land.

<math>Insert formula here</math>==The Mandate==

In July, 1922, the League of Nations conferred on Great Britain a Mandate for Palestine. Under the Mandate, Palestine consisted of (what is today) Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. (See map.) In September, 1922, the Council of the League of Nations approved a British decision to administratively separate the territory east of the River Jordan, containing approximately 75% of the Mandate, which the British subsequently constituted as the Emirate of Transjordan

After coexisting with the Muslim and Christian populations for centuries, the Numbers of the Jewish residents were swollen in the twentieth century by the arrival of Jews from outside the area, influenced by the claims of an initially secular Zionist movement regarding a homeland for Jews, victims of persecution and pogroms in Europe. By various means not excluding violence and terrorism against the British, control of the territory was wrested from the indigenous inhabitants, leading to the creation of the state of Israel over much of the area.

.On November 29, 1949, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 181, providing for the termination of the Mandate and the partition of the territory into independent Arab and Jewish states, with a special international regime for an expanded Jerusalem.The Jews of Palestine accepted the UN Resolution. On May 14, 1948, the Jewish state came into existence under the name of Israel.

The Arabs of Palestine (Today's Palestinian Arabs are children, grandchildren of Arab immigrants from the surrounding nations [1] [2]) rejected the UN Resolution. Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, and other Arab states attacked Israel in an effort to destroy the new state. Israel successfully defended itself, however. The fighting concluded in 1949 with separate armistices between Israel and each of its neighbors. As a result of the fighting, Israel incorporated a portion of the territory intended for the Arab state and for international Jerusalem; Transjordan occupied and annexed the West Bank and the balance of the intended international Jerusalem; and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip. Transjordan, which changed its name to Jordan, granted citizenship to its Palestinian residents; Egypt did not grant citizenship to Palestinian residents of the Gaza Strip.

As a result of the 1967 Six-Day War, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip came under Israeli occupation. It is generally expected that, if and when a definitive peace agreement is reached between Israel and the Palestinians, the Palestinians will create a state called Palestine alongside Israel in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

Among the key issues that separate the two sides are the exact borders of the State of Palestine, security arrangements to protect Israel, and resolution of the issue of the Palestinian refugees. In December, 2000, President Clinton presented a set of parameters for a resolution of the conflict to Prime Minister Ehud Barak of Israel and the Palestinian leader Yassir Arafat. Basically, the Clinton Parameters called for the creation alongside Israel of a substantially demilitarized State of Palestine consisting of the Gaza Strip and almost all of the West Bank. A small portion of the West Bank containing Israeli settlement blocks, and amounting to perhaps 3-5% of the West Bank, would be incorporated into Israel with a compensating territorial swap for Palestine. Palestinian refugees would be allowed to return to the State of Palestine and an international fund would be created to provide compensation; they would not be entitled to enter Israel without the consent of the Israeli government.

Israel accepted the Clinton Parameters. Arafat rejected them. Nevertheless, it is expected that a definitive peace agreement between Israel and the Palestinians inevitably will be based upon substantially similar principles.

On April 30, 2003, the United States State Department released a Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict under the auspices of the United States, the European Union, the United Nations, and Russia (the "Quartet). Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority profess to have accepted the Roadmap, albeit with varying comments and interpretations.

On November 19, 2003, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1515, endorsing the Roadmap and calling "on the parties to fulfil their obligations under the Roadmap in cooperation with the Quartet and to achieve the vision of two States living side by side in peace and security."

There is good reason to doubt the willingness of the current Israeli government, under Prime Minister Arik Sharon to agree to a viable Palestinian state of the size contemplated by the Clinton Parameters. And, neither the Palestinian Authority nor the Palestine Liberation Organization has ever agreed to limit application of the claimed Palestinian Right of Return to the new State of Palestine.

Notwithstanding the position of the current Israeli government, based upon public opinion polls and prior experience, many people expect that a majority of Israelis still would support a definitive peace agreement based upon the Clinton Parameters, provided they had confidence in the trustworthiness of the Palestinian side.

Democratization


Backgrounders

  • Peace dictionary
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