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1860 1861 1862


  • Pony Express ends.
  • Risorgimento: political unification of Italy.
  • Immigration increases Irish population in England and Wales to 601634.
  • Russian Tsar Alexander II appoints Dimitri Miliutin to be War Minister, a position he will hold until 1881.


  • January 9: U.S. Civil War begins.
  • April 11: Surrender of Fort Sumter demanded by Confederate traitors.
  • April 12-14: Bombardment of Fort Sumter and evacuation by Union Army.
  • July 21: First Battle of Bull Run ends in Confederate victory.
  • November 9: Confederate Secretary of War Judah P. Benjamin selects Union POW Col. Michael Corcoran (commander of the Irish 69th New York Regiment) to be executed as a threatened reprisal for the execution of Confederate privateer Walter W. Smith.
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