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1300s 1400s 1500s


  • 1400: Tran Dynasty falls in Vietnam.
  • 1402: Tamerland defeats Ottoman Sultan Bayazid at Ankara.
  • 1402: Sultanate of Malacca founded.
  • 1405: French explorer Anselme d'Isalguier from Toulouse reaches Gao on the Niger River.
  • 1405: Tamerlane dies.
  • 1414: Ottoman Turks defeat Christian army at Varna.
  • 1415: Portuguese capture Moroccan port of Ceuta, beginning Portugal's expansion down W. African coast.
  • 1428: Le Dynasty established in Vietnam. Will survive until 1788.
  • 1430: Khanate of Crimea established.
  • 1434: Portuguese round Cape Mojador on W. African coast, surmounting a major navigational obstacle.
  • 1439: French king Charles VII institutes permanent land tax which provides revenue for a standing army, enabling France to win the 100 Years War(1337-1453).
  • 1445: Khanate of Kazan established.
  • 1448: Ottoman Empire defeast Hungarian jan Hunyadi at Kosovo.
  • 1450: Portuguese begin European slave trade in West Africa.
  • 1450: Oirot (Mongol) ruler Esen crosses the Great Wall of China and defeats Ming Dynasty army.
  • 1453: Ottoman army under Sultan Mahmoud I captures Constantinople, extinguishing remnant of Byzantine Empire. One of Mahmoud's siege cannons weighs 19 tons and can fire a 1500 lb. cannon ball more than a mile.
  • 1453: Italian explorer Cadamosto travels up the Senegal River.
  • 1455: First serious clashes in England's Wars of the Roses.
  • 1456: Khanate of Astrakhan established.
  • 1460-1465 Gutenberg invents the printing press.
  • 1469: Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon, creating a union of the Spanish crowns.
  • 1470: Mongols unified, again.
  • 1478: Oxford University Press founded.
  • 1478: Ivan III, a.k.a. Ivan the Great conquers Novgorod.
  • 1483: Francisco de Vitorio is born in Burgos.
  • 1484: Pope Innocent VIII issues papl denunication of wirchcraft, naming cannibis as an anti-sacrament in Satanic worship.
  • 1485: Ivan III, a.k.a. Ivan the Great conquers Tver.
  • 1485: Wars of the Roses end with Henry Tudor(Henry VII)defeating and killing Richard III at Bosworth Field.
  • 1486: Portuguese explorer Bartolomeo Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope.
  • 1487: Spanish forces use trebuchets(counterwight catapults)at siege of Muslim city of Malaga. Last known use of such weapons.
  • March 31: 1492: Formal Edict of Expulsion, forcing Jews to convert or leave Sapin.
  • 1492: Faux Genoese, actual Catalan Cristobol Columbus re-discovers the Western Hemisphere, local inhabitants aware of its existence for 20,000 years.
  • 1492: Grenada, last remaining Muslim state in Spain, surrenders to Ferdinand & Isabella.
  • 1493: Pope Alexander VI takes time away from his beautiful 19 year old mistress Giulia Farnese to issue a Papal Bull (amended slightly by Treaty of Tordesillas) that divides the newly "discovered" lands outside Europe between Roman Catholic Portugal & Roman Catholic Spain. Local inhabitants of the Americas, European protestants, Asians and Africans were not consulted.
  • 1493: Boabdil the Unfortunate flees from southern Spain to Fez in Morocco. Dies 36 years later.
  • 1494: French king Charles VIII invades Italy to press claims to Milan & Naples, initiating more than 60 years of wars with Spain.
  • 1495: First known cases of syphilis in Europe(S. Italy). Most medical historians believe New World is the origin, but some think it may have originated in W. Africa.
  • 1497: John Cabot(Caboto) reaches Newfoundland.
  • 1497-99: Vasco da Gama's first voyage to India. Discovery of a sea route to India makes the Middle East redundant and begins slow decline of Arab ship-building and sea-faring.
  • December 18, 1499: Mass conversion of 3000 Spanish Muslims who become Roman Catholics. Mass burning of copies of the Koran in Granada.
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