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No Child Left Behind

From dKosopedia

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), signed in January of 2002, re-authorizes the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Although the primary purpose of the initial act was to provide federal funding for schools in poverty, the provisions of the current NCLB also include federal mandates for annual state assessments, teacher and paraprofessional qualifications, assessments at the pre-school level, and sanctions for schools and districts that fail to meet "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) as defined in the act.

The provisions that we tend to think of as "No Child Left Behind" were based on the success--if you can call it that--of the Houston Independent School District under the guidance of Superintendent Rod Paige, who recently served as George W. Bush's Secretary of Education. Later revelations have shown that the great success there has turned out to be mere deception. For more, see The Texas Miracle.


House Voting Record on 2001 NCLB

House vote

Senate Voting Record on 2001 NCLB

Grouped By Vote Position

YEAs - 87

  • Allard (R-CO)
  • Allen (R-VA)
  • Baucus (D-MT)
  • Bayh (D-IN)
  • Biden (D-DE)
  • Bingaman (D-NM)
  • Bond (R-MO)
  • Boxer (D-CA)
  • Breaux (D-LA)
  • Brownback (R-KS)
  • Bunning (R-KY)
  • Burns (R-MT)
  • Byrd (D-WV)
  • Campbell (R-CO)
  • Cantwell (D-WA)
  • Carnahan (D-MO)
  • Carper (D-DE)
  • Chafee (R-RI)
  • Cleland (D-GA)
  • Clinton (D-NY)
  • Cochran (R-MS)
  • Collins (R-ME)
  • Conrad (D-ND)
  • Corzine (D-NJ)
  • Craig (R-ID)
  • Crapo (R-ID)
  • Daschle (D-SD)
  • DeWine (R-OH)
  • Dodd (D-CT)
  • Domenici (R-NM)
  • Dorgan (D-ND)
  • Durbin (D-IL)
  • Edwards (D-NC)
  • Ensign (R-NV)
  • Enzi (R-WY)
  • Feinstein (D-CA)
  • Fitzgerald (R-IL)
  • Frist (R-TN)
  • Graham (D-FL)
  • Gramm (R-TX)
  • Grassley (R-IA)
  • Gregg (R-NH)
  • Harkin (D-IA)
  • Hatch (R-UT)
  • Hutchinson (R-AR)
  • Hutchison (R-TX)
  • Inhofe (R-OK)
  • Inouye (D-HI)
  • Johnson (D-SD)
  • Kennedy (D-MA)
  • Kerry (D-MA)
  • Kohl (D-WI)
  • Kyl (R-AZ)
  • Landrieu (D-LA)
  • Levin (D-MI)
  • Lieberman (D-CT)
  • Lincoln (D-AR)
  • Lott (R-MS)
  • Lugar (R-IN)
  • McCain (R-AZ)
  • McConnell (R-KY)
  • Mikulski (D-MD)
  • Miller (D-GA)
  • Murray (D-WA)
  • Nelson (D-FL)
  • Nickles (R-OK)
  • Reed (D-RI)
  • Reid (D-NV)
  • Roberts (R-KS)
  • Rockefeller (D-WV)
  • Santorum (R-PA)
  • Sarbanes (D-MD)
  • Schumer (D-NY)
  • Sessions (R-AL)
  • Shelby (R-AL)
  • Smith (R-NH)
  • Smith (R-OR)
  • Snowe (R-ME)
  • Specter (R-PA)
  • Stabenow (D-MI)
  • Stevens (R-AK)
  • Thomas (R-WY)
  • Thompson (R-TN)
  • Thurmond (R-SC)
  • Torricelli (D-NJ)
  • Warner (R-VA)
  • Wyden (D-OR)

NAYs - 10

Not Voting - 3

  • Bennett (R-UT)
  • Dayton (D-MN)
  • Feingold (D-WI)
  • Hagel (R-NE)
  • Hollings (D-SC)
  • Jeffords (I-VT)
  • Leahy (D-VT)
  • Nelson (D-NE)
  • Voinovich (R-OH)
  • Wellstone (D-MN)
  • Akaka (D-HI)
  • Helms (R-NC)
  • Murkowski (R-AK)


The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 was originally part of President Johnson's War on Poverty. Designed to address the educational needs of children in poverty, the ESEA allocated resources through compensatory education programs for the poor. Through ESEA, the federal government initially funded Title I programs in public schools with high concentrations of children in poverty; began Head Start programs for pre-school children in poverty; and, through the 1968 Title VII amendment to the ESEA, began federal funding of bilingual education programs.

The ESEA marked a change in federal support for schools; instead of simply giving general aid, the federal government targeted its aid for education in specific categories (some of this "categorical" support for education at the federal level had also occurred under the earlier 1958 National Defense Education Act as a response to Sputnik). In addition, the ESEA put state agencies in the role of administering federal education funds.

The ESEA has had several additions and revisions over the years. It was re-authorized in 1994 under President Clinton and re-titled the Improving America's Schools Act (IASA). Among the changes instituted in IASA were requirements for states to establish standards for math and for language arts; for states to use multiple measurement systems to evaluate student achievement in these areas; and for states to set criteria for what constitutes "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) for schools receiving Title I money. Under IASA, the federal government left states with the flexibility to determine for themselves which schools and districts were struggling to meet AYP targets by the state's definition, and to provide supplementary assistance where necessary.

Current provisions of NCLB

Punitive Measures

After a school fails to meet AYP requirements for two years in a row, it is determined to be in "in need of improvement" status (INOI). A school remains in improvement status until it meets AYP requirements for two years in a row.

For each year (beginning with the second year of failing to meet AYP) that a school is in improvement status, the following sanctions are required under NCLB:


See Also

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This page was last modified 21:57, 18 December 2006 by dKosopedia user Corncam. Based on work by Ray Radlein and Arthur Smith and dKosopedia user(s) Obietom, DRolfe, Mgterrell, Sheba and Punishinglemur. Content is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.

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