Serbia and Montenegro

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The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) disintegrated in 1991 with the declarations of independence of Slovenia and Croatia, followed by the declarations of independence of The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. Two of the successor states, Serbia and Montenegro, formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SRJ) in 1992. The Montenegrin government sought greater independence in the lopsided federation, and tensions between the two states increased when Montenegrin officials turned against the Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic in 1997. When Milosevic was forced out of power following his electoral defeat in 2000, the two republics negotiated a temporary arrangement under which the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" would be dissolved in 2003, to be replaced by the "State Union of Serbia and Montenegro" for three years, after which the republics would hold referenda to determine whether the union would be maintained.

The first president of SRJ was the nationalist novelist Dobrica Cosic, appointed by the parliament in June 1992 and removed in June 1993. He was succeeded by the mostly unobtrosive Zoran Lilic, until Slobodan Milosevic decided to have himself named federal president in June 1997. Milosevic was defeated in the elections of Septmber 2000 by the conservative law professor Vojislav Kostunica. Kostunica was severely limited in his rule and constantly outmaneuvered by the Serbian prime minister, the neoliberal Zoran Djindjic. Djindjic was murdered in March 2003, and Kostunica lost his job as the Yugoslav federation ceased to exist. His federal position was assumed by the Montenegrin liberal Svetozar Marovic, who continues to be the president of the "State Union of Serbia and Montenegro."

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