Election integrity timeline prior to 1996

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  • 1994: Bob Urosevich leaves American Information Systems; Chuck Hagel takes over as CEO
  • 1975: U.S. Congress creates an independent regulatory agency, the FEC, to administer and enforce the Federal Elections Campaign Act. The primary functions of this watchdog agency are to disclose campaign finance information, enforce the limits, prohibitions, and other provisions of the election law, and administer the public funding of presidential elections.
  • 1974-1975: election between John A. Durkin, Manchester and Louis C. Wyman for Senator from NH ends in revote
  • 1971: 26th Amendment lowers the minimum voting age from 21 to 18
  • 1965: Voting Rights Act prohibits states from using literacy tests to limit the right to vote
  • 1964: 24th Amendment prohibits states from imposing a poll tax
  • 1957: Mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical tabulating machines permitted in California counties with fewer than 30 districts
  • 1956: Mark Sense/Optical voting system approved in California
  • 1952: L.A. cancels use of voting machines due to length of ballot
  • 1920: 19th Amendment prohibits states from using sex to limit the right to vote
  • 1906: All elections conducted by voting machines in San Francisco; SF grand jury finds evidence of count fraud
  • 1896: United States Voting Machine Company of Jamestown markets an improved device which soon gains widespread use throughout New York State. This organization becomes the Automatic Voting Machine Corporation of Jamestown, New York.
  • 1889-1892: Lever machines invented and used in elections by Jacob Myers in Lockport, New York
  • 1888: Massachusetts first adopts the Australian secret ballot, which is: (1) an official ballot printed at public expense on which (2) the names of the nominated candidates of all parties and all proposals appear (3)distributed only at the polling place and (4) marked in secret. Within eight years, about 90% of the states adopt the Australian secret ballot.
  • 1870: 15th Amendment prohibits states from using race to limit the right to vote
  • 1869: In his first patent, Edison invents the Electrographic Vote Recorder, used for congressional vote count but never adopted for public use, though his ideas were influential
  • 1861: By this point, only Kentucky and Virginia were still voting by voice
  • 1800: Northwest Territory enacts law stating that elections should be held by ballot
  • 1629: first vote with paper ballots (as opposed to objects such as beans or shells) in Salem, Massachusetts


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