Vitter represented Louisiana's 1st Congressional District in the House of Representatives from 1999 to 2004. He was elected to this seat by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of United States Representative Robert L. Livingston, Jr.
Vitter graduated from Harvard University, attended Oxford University on a Rhodes scholarship and earned a law degree from Tulane University. He and his wife Wendy have four children.
- Vitter has always presented himself as a family-values conservative, and he was one of the sponsors of the constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriages. However, he has been dogged by persistent rumors of maritial infidelity. (Source: There is a house in New Orleans, by Mary Jacoby, Salon.com, Oct. 29, 2004)
- Vitter is nicknamed "Diaperman" as a result of unconfirmed reports that he has a diaper fetish. 
- Vitter admitted that he was a client of the D.C. Madam, who ran a prostitution ring in Washington. ()
- A New Orleans brothel owner claims that Vitter was a client during the mid-1990s. (Source: Madam: Vitter a client at Canal Street brothel, by Kate Moran and Martha Carr, New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 10, 2007.)