Bolivarísmo is the name given to the broadly interpreted and applied socioeconomic and political philosophy of late-20th century Latin American reform movement of the left in South America. Bolivarísmo is a renewed effort to determine and define autonomous public and political policy in Latin America named after and hearkening to Simón Bolívar, leader of the Latin American independence movement throughout South America in the 1820s and counterpart of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. The primary bolivarismo platform is land reform, an issue that threatens US transnational economic interests, which in turn govern large portions of US foreign policy in the region.
Land reform has historically been opposed and repelled through military and covert interventions. Venezuela and Brazil, together with Bolivia, represent recent trends toward a progressive left in Latin American politics and society, a trend which had been impeded for decades by foreign intervention, notably through efforts of the CIA. The US has not been at all helpful to bolivarismo or its primary proponent, Hugo Chavez, but has been less forceful than it has been with previous left wing politicians in Latin America. Venezuela's extensive petroleum reserves are keystones to the velvet glove approach. Fidel Castro's name is frequently used to cast aspersions upon Chavez and other leaders of the region who retain diplomatic and cultural relations with Cuba, notably because of Cuba's high literacy rate, breadth of medical and social care achievements, and markets.
Historically preferred methods of foreign intervention in Latin America have been the destabilization of leftist and progressive states through agitation propaganda and inflammatory rhetoric. On occasion, military means have been used, as are the cases of Guatemala and Perú in the mid-twentieth century. In such cases, the term Communism has been used in order to redirect attention away from pressing and oftentimes dire socioeconomic polarization.