1600: Charles I is restored to the throne of England.
1600: Khanate of Sibin is destroyed.
1600: British East India Company is established.
August 5, 1600: John, Earl of Gowrie and Alexander Ruthven are killed in Perth in an encounter with King James of Scotland, probably because they refuse his homosexual advances. James also owed Gowrie 40,000 pounds.
August 7, 1600: King James of Scotland orders the bodies of John, Earl of Gowrie and Alexander Ruthven to be pickled until they can be punished posthumously.
October 30: Pickled bodies of John, Earl of Gowrie and Alexander Ruthven arrive in Edinburgh and are then thrown in the dungeon. Two weeks later they are taken to Holyrood House for trial. They, or their bodies, are convicted of treason and their bloodlines declared corrupt. Thge debt King James owed to Gowrie was extinguished by the conviction. Every member of the Ruthven family in Scotland is ordered to change their surname on penalty of death. Four days later they, or their bodies, are taken along High Street to be hanged, drawn, quartered and further dismembered. Their pieces are displayed on spikes outside the city jail. Their father had been beheaded by King James in 1590.
1602: United (Netherlands) East India Company of VOC (Vereenigde OostIndische Compagnie) is established.
1602 First English settlement in North America: Cuttyhunk Island (Virginia). Lasts only 3 weeks.
1603: Union of English and Scottish Crowns under James I, a.k.a. James IV of Scotland.
1620: Dutch engineer Cornelis Drebbel conceives and builds oared submersible.
1623-1624: Francis Bacon writes The New Atlantis.
1623: Gutsy Ottoman Turk Lagari Hasan Celebi bedcomes the first person to fly on a rocket.
1623: English merchants abandon their money losing "factory" in Hirado, Japan.
1624: Spanish are expelled from Japan. Portugese are expelled in 1638. This safety measure helps prevent Japan from being colonized by aggressive Europeans.
1624: William Oughtred invents the slide rule.
1625: Hugo Grotius publishes Laws of Peace and War.
1625: English colonists ask Chief Samoset for 12,000 more acres of Pemaquid land. Knowing that land comes from the Great Spirit he agrees.
April 9, 1626: Francis Bacon dies.
1627: Francis Bacon's The New Atlantis is published.
1628: Petition of Right outlines grievances of English Parliament against abuses of Royal power.
1630: Settlement of Boston.
1631: Russian Coassacks build Bratsk, the first fort on Buryat territory.
1632: Maryland Colony established by Lord Baltimore as home for English Roman Catholics.
1633: Chol uprising against Spanish in Verapaz, Guatemala.
February 2, 1637: Haarlem florists auction tulip bulbs at the hieght of tulipomania in Netherlands.
1634: Buryats torch the Cossask fort Bratsk and massacre the garrison.
1637: Shimabara Rebellion in Japan. Last attempt by Christian daimyos in Japan to escape control by the Tokugawa Shogunate fails.
1638: Portugese are expelled from Japan. This safety measure helps prevent Japan from being colonized by aggressive Europeans.
1638: Rene Descartes publishes Discourse on Method.
1639: British East India Company establishes trading rights at Madras.
March 3, 1644: Sikh Guru Hargobind dies.
1640-60: English Revolution: Civil War, execution of King Charles I, Commonwealth (military dictatorship led by O. Cromwell), restoration of monarchy (Charles II).
1641: Russian Coassacks build Verkholensk, the first fort on the upper Lena river. Continuously beseiged by Buryats for 5 years.
1641: Attempted arrest by Dutch leds to the detah of 4 Raritans on Staten Island. Raritans retaliate and Dutch governor Willem Kieft orders the massacre of the inhabitants of two villages, including women and children.
1641-1644: Dutch take Sao Tome from Portugal.
May 21, 1641: Dutch East India Company is compelled to give up their "factory" in Hirado, Japan and move to an island in Nagasaki harbour where influence can be safely quarantined.
December 18, 1642: Dutch explorers Francoijs Visscher and Abel Janszoon Tasman re-discover New Zealand. (See 1504) Three Dutchman are killed, one of whose body is eaten by Maori warriors. Europeans become the favorite European import of the Maori.
1644: Matthew Hopkins announces that he is England's Witchfinder General.
December 4, 1644: First European Congress convenes in Munster and Osnabruck for negotiations that would end the Thirty Years War.
1648: Marin Mersenne dies.
October 24: 1648: The Peace of Westphalia is signed, ending the Thirty Years War. Principle of sovereign territorial state universally accepted in Europe. Calvinism is officially recognized. The French get lovely Alsace and forest cities on the Rhine and prevent the emergence of a unified German kingdom. The Swedes get a piece of Pomerania and Bremen.
1648-53: Outbreak of Fronde, judicial and noble rebellion in France against the expansion of royal power under Richelieu & Mazarin. Revolt ultimately fails, development of absolutist monarchy under Louis XIV continues.
1649: Gerrard Winstanley and the Diggers establish a commune on waste land; Cromwell and his New Model Army destroy the commune to prove that communism doesn't work.
1654: Tokyo's second, and principal aqueduct (24 miles long is completed. New York will get its first aqueduct (33 miles long) in 1842.
1655: Pierre Gassendi dies.
1655: After British seize Jamaica, the Spanish release slaves who flee into the hinterland and becomes the Maroons.
1657: Oliver Cromwell grants charter to the London East India Company. The new joint stock company raises 740,000 English pounds in a few months.
1657: New Amsterdam (Manhattan) passes law against throwing waste into the streets.
1659: Treaty of the Pyrenees makes the mountain chain the boder between France and Spain.
1660: Kasai Canal completed.
1662: King Charles II charters England's Royal Society. Early members include Robert Boyle, Christopher Wren, Edmond Halley, John Locke, and Isaac Newton.
1662: Massasoit, great chief of the Wampanoags, dies.
1662: North Carolina and South Carolina established as English colonies. English colonists clearly suffereing from critical lack of local langauge skills and/or creativity.
1663: Eight "Lord Proprietor" are granted a patent from English King Charles II for a colony in Carolina. The land is rightfully owned by Native Americans but what is that to English law? John Locke assists in building the legal institutions that exproporiate the Native Americans.
1664: British East India Company establishes trading rights at Bombay/Mumbai.
1664: Conventicle Act makes it a capital crime to worship in a nonconformist service if more than 4 people.
1664: Amy Duny and Rose Cullender executed in Bury St. Edwards on charges of witchcraft supported by spectral evidence.
1686: Japanese mathematician Seki Takakazu invents the matrix.
August 17, 1686: Spanish colonial forces attack the Scots settlement at Stuart Town in Carolina.
1687: Isaac Newton publishes Principia Mathematica, the theoretical foundation for modern physics.
1687: The Trinh establish the new Nguyen Dynasty capital in the city of Hue.
1688: German Quakers from the Rhineland in Philadelphia sign petition opposing African slavery.
1688-89: England's "Glorious Revolution". James II ousted, replaced by William III. Constitutional monarchy established. Declaration of Rights includes guarantee of "free" parliamentary elections, taxation only with consent of Parliament, and ban on "cruel & unusual punishments".
1689: Peter the Great is born.
1690: Oirot (Mongol) ruler Galdan Khan, lays seige to Beijing unsuccessfully.
1691: Kurosawa Motoshige publishes first technical manual on mining: Kozan Shiho Yoroku.
1692-1693: Salem Witch Trials, 50 are jailed.
March 1, 1692: Tituba is accused by Abigail Williams and Elizabeth Parris.
March 21, 1692: Martha Corey is accused.
July 19, 1692: Eight defendants hanged on Gallows Hill. They deny their guilt.
September 19, 1692: Giles Corey dies under torture.
1693: British East India Company's charter technically forfeited.
November 21, 1694: Voltaire is born in Paris.
1696: British East India Company establishes trading rights at Calcutta.
1696: Russian Empire under Peter the Great captures Azov from the Khanate of Crimea.
1697: Pierre Bayle, French Protestant exile in the Netherlands, publishes Historical & Critical Dictionary. Basically an extended argument in favor of religious skepticism and toleration, it will later be called the "Arsenal of the Enlightenment".
1697: Treaty of Ryswick.
1698: British Parliament passes the Blasphemy Law. The crime is defined as speech that denied the Trinity or denied Christianity or denied the "divine authority of the Bible." Diests and Unitarians are targeted rather than Roman Catholics or Jews.
1698: Capt. Edward Rigby is pilloried for sodomy.
1698: Stean pump invented by Englishman Thomas Savery.