1503: Spanish Crown establishes Casa de las Indias to exploit newly "discovered" lands in the Western Hemisphere.
February 12: Spanish Queen Isabella orders to expulsion of all remaining Muslims from Spain, ending 800 yars of Islamic Iberian civilization.
March 31, 1504: Sikh Guru Nanak is born in Punjab.
1504: French explorer Binot de Gonneville discovers what is later named New Zealand. Returns to France with two Maori, one of whom marries and leaves descendants.
1505: Nicolo Machiavelli writes The Prince (not published until 1515).
May 20, 1506: Cristobol Columbus dies alone and poor in Spain.
1510: Portuguese seize the Indian port of Goa, which they hold until 1961.
1513: Battle of Flodden. Henry VIII is busy in southwestern France losing a war.
March 26, 1513: Wolsey is apointed Bishop of Lincoln.
May 4, 1513: Henry VIII orders Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, beheaded.
June 13, 1514: The Henry Grace a Dieu is launched at Erith.
September 1515: Wolsey is made a Cardinal.
October 29, 1515: The Virgin Mary is launched.
December 25, 1515: Wolsey is appointed Lord Chancellor.
1516: Thomas More publishes Utopia.
1517: Martin Luther publishes protest against Church abuse of indulgences, prompting Reformation in Germany. Perhaps indulgences could be viewed as a early form of intellectual property.
1516-18: Charles V inherits crowns of Spain and also becomes Holy Roman Emperor (until 1556).
1518: Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa visits the island of Timor and notes the abundance of sandalwood.
1519: 'One Reed' in the Aztec Calendar - Quetzalcoatl is predicted to return.
1519-21: Spanish Conqusitador Hernando Cortez conquers Mexico using treachery, steel weapons, horses, native allies and a variety of nasty Old World microbes that cause a population crash in MesoAmerica.
1520: Pope excommunicates Luther, who breaks with the Church and calls on German princes to reform their churches.
1521: Moscow burned by Khan Salib Giray of Kazan.
1524: Mayans discover the Spanish. They are not happy.
1526: Moghul Emperor Babur completes conquest of India.
1526: Portuguese explorer Jorge de Meneses becomes the first "recorded" European to visit what becomes the islands of Papua New Guinea. He names one of the islands "ilhas dos Papuas" or "land of fuzzy-haired people".
1528: Babri Masjid is ordered constructed by Mughal Emperor Babur.
1529: Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Vienna. European discovery of coffee drinking is later attributed to looting of the Ottoman Turkish camps (where bags of coffee beans were discovered) when the seige is releaved. A good story even if it isn't true. Consider what might have happened if the Turks had left behind their hashhish.
November 14, 1543: Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn.
1534: Act of Supremacy separates Church of England from Roman Catholic Church.
1534: Nicholas Udall, reputed paedophile, becomes Provost of Eton.
1539: After making a fortune in Peru, Hernando de Soto lands in Florida and explores what would become the American Southeast. He spreads nasty Old World microbes that devastate native American populations.
1540: Henry VIII orders Roman Catholics burned for supporting the Pope and Protestants burned for heresy. Plague arrives in London in the summer.
1541: John Calvin establishes new church government in Geneva.
1542: Khan Dayan defeats the Ming Dynasty.
1543: Fist Europeans arrive in Japan; they bring two novelties--Christianity and guns--and exhibit a shocking unfamiliarity with regular bathing.
1543: Copernicus dies.
July 12, 1543: Henry VIII marries Katherine Parr.
1546: Henry VIII buys The Three Brothers diamond from the Fuggers Banks in Augsburg.
1546: Girolamo Fracasctoro first advances the germ theory of disease.
1546: Francesco de Virorio dies.
1546: Major silver deposit discovered by Spanish in Peru. The Incas probably knew it was there but were hoping Spanish would go home at some point.
1546: Spanish explorer Inigo Ortiz de Retes names the other large island of the future Papua New Guinea as "New Guinea" because the islanders resemble the people of Guinea in West Africa. Alternatively he might have asked the locals whet they call their island but...
January 28, 1547, at 2:00 a.m., Henry VIII dies.
1547: Hernando Cortez dies.
1552: Czar Ivan IV a.k.a. Ivan the Terrible (alternatively Awe Inspiring) conquers city of Kazan.
1554: Habsburg Ambassador to the court of the Ottoman Sultan in Constantinople, Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq, introduces tulips to Europe.
1554: Ivan IV, a.k.a. Ivan the Terrible (alternatively Awe Inspiring) ends formal subordination of Russian princes to the Tatars. Tatar fiscal crisis deepens.
October, 1572: Approximately 100 Roman Catholic schoolboys in Provins, France seize the body of an hanged Protestant and subject it to a tug of war before holding a mock trial to determine whether they will bury it head first or feet first in a cesspit.
August 24, 1572: St. Bartholonew's Day Massacre of Huguenots or French Protestants. 70,000 reportedly killed in Paris.
February 15, 1574: Galileo Galilei is born in Pisa.
1578: William Borne drafts first submarine design.
1583: Hugo Grotius is born.
1584: Spanish establish Nombre de Jesús along the coast on the Straits of Magellan.
1585: Sir Walter Raleigh establishes English colony on Roanoke Island that goes missing. Permanently.
1591: Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu orders ill-fated invasion of Korea.
1591: Pierre Ayrault publishes On the Trials of Corpses, Ashes, Memory, Animals, Inanimate Things and Absent Defendants.