Bioethics is the ethics of decision-making about advances in biological science, medical science and cybernetics.
Definition and Scope
Bioethics involves the analysis of the ethical questions arising from choices resulting from advances in biology and medical science and cybernetics. There is no scholarly or popular consensus on the proper scope for ethical evaluation of the choices resulting from such advances. Some bioethicists would narrow ethical evaluation only to the morality of medical therapy or technological innovations, and the timing of medical treatment of humans. Other bioethicists would broaden the scope of ethical evaluation to include the morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear and pain.
Bioethics often involve public policy questions which social conservatives have or may use to mobilize their political constituencies. For this reason, some biologists and others involved in the development of technology have come to see any mention of "bioethics" as an attempt to derail their work and react to it as such, regardless of the true intent. Transhumanist biologists in particular can be inclined to this line of thought, as they see their work as inherently ethical, and attacks on it as misguided.
List of Bioethics Issues
- Abortion, reproductive rights
- Artificial insemination
- Artificial life
- Confidentiality of medical records and their abuse in interrogation of prisoners
- Direct mind-computer interface
- Donating one's sperm or eggs
- Donated organs when bought illegally (transplant trade)
- Fair allocation of donated organs, class and race biases
- Drug pricing, HIV/AIDs drugs in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Genetic engineering, genetically modified food crops
- Human cloning
- Medical torture
- Non-human animal cloning
- Treating infertility
- Obligations of the individual, corporate employer, local, sub-national or national state and global community to provide health care and/or health insurance.
- Primate rights under law
- Stem cell cloning
- Suicide, assisted suicide and human euthanasia
- Non-human animal euthanasia
- Pain management
- Population control
- Recreational drug use
- Scientific ignorance
- Selling one's own blood or blood plasma
- Spiritual drug use
- Synthetic Biology
- When to use, and when to withhold, life-support
- When to use, and when to withhold, artificial hydration and artificial nutrition
- Use of surrogate mothers
- Use of nanotechnology as medical treatment
- Use of artificial wombs
- Treating non-human animals
- Medical research on non-human animals
Bioethicists employ philosophy and sometimes theology tricked out as philosophy to reach conclusions about the issues listed above.
- Carolyn Abraham. "Creating First Synthetic Lifeform." Globe and Mail. December 19, 2005.
- Ben Bova. Immortality: How Science is Extending Your Life-Span and Changing the World. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0380793180.
- Thomas A. Georges. Digital Soul: Intelligent Machines and Human Values. Boulder: Westview. ISBN 0813340578.
- Robert D. Orr and Leigh B. Genesen. Requests for Inappropriate Treatment Based on Religious Beliefs in Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 23, 1997. pp. 142-147.
- Van Rensselaer Potter. (1971). Bioethics: Bridge to the Future. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0130765058.
- Van Rensselaer Potter. (1988). Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy. East Lansing. Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0870132644.
- R.P. Sloan, E. Bagiella and T. Powlell. Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine, The Lancet, 1999, 353(9153): 1-7.
- Peter Stevin and Joe Stevens, Detainees' Medical Files Shared Guantanamo Interrogators' Access Criticized Washington Post June 10, 2004, Page A01
- John Thomas. Where Religious and Secular Ethics Meet in Humane Health Care International, Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1996.
- Catherine Waldby & Robert Mitchell. 2006. Tissue Economies. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822337576.
- Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
- Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics
- All India Association of Bioethics
- The American Journal of Bioethics
- American Society for Bioethics and Humanities
- Bioethics for clinicians: Islamic bioethics - Canadian Medical Association Journal
- Bioethics program at the University of Judaism, Los Angeles, California
- Bioethics and Sport
- Bioliberty: Proposal for the Declaration of Intelligent Beings' Rights
- The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity (A Christian bioethics council)
- The Center for Bioethics and Culture Network
- The Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics
- Council for Responsible Genetics USA
- Eubios Ethics Institute JAPAN
- The Hastings Center
- Jewish bioethics on the web
- Jewish Bioethics from Jerusalem's Darche Noam Educational Institute
- Journal of the International Association of Bioethics
- Mystical Bioethics Network
- National Catholic Bioethics Center
- National Institute of Health: Bioethics resources on the web
- Pandas' Liberation Revisited
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Feminist Bioethics
- The U.S.A. President's Council on Bioethics
- Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the 21st Century
Stem Cell Research Controversy in the United States
Fertility Law Controversy in Italy
- This article was seeded from Wikipedia.